PJE https://ojs.aiou.edu.pk/index.php/pje <p>Pakistan Journal of Education</p> en-US editorpje@aiou.edu.pk (Editorial Committee PJE Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad.) muhammad.naveed@aiou.edu.pk (Muhammad Naveed) Mon, 04 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Relationship Among Happiness, Life Satisfaction and Resilience in University Students https://ojs.aiou.edu.pk/index.php/pje/article/view/884 <p>The present study seeks to explain the interactive and relative effects<br>of happiness, life satisfaction and resilience among university students in<br>Pakistan. Basic objective of this research was to find out the relationship<br>between happiness, life satisfaction and resilience, further to investigate<br>the level of resilience, happiness and life satisfaction among male and<br>female students. Disproportionate stratified sampling technique was used<br>to select 400 university students (male=200, female=200) from the<br>universities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The study was conducted in<br>two phases. In phase-I pilot study was conducted and in phase-II main<br>study was administered. The data for the study was collected through<br>stratified random sampling technique and three reliable instrument used<br>were; Oxford Happiness Scale (1990), Life satisfaction scale (1985) and<br>Resilience Scale (1993). Data was analyzed using statistical techniques<br>like Pearson correlation; Independent sample t-test was used. Results of<br>the study indicated a significant inverse relationship between the<br>variables of resilience and happiness (r=-.472**) where female students<br>were happier than male students (M + SD= 109.8442 + 15.45855) and a<br>significant inverse relationship between life satisfaction and resilience<br>(r=-.112*<br>) among male and female university students. The results also<br>indicated that females are more satisfied with life than males (M + SD=<br>23.3810 + 5.64858). It was also found that there were significant gender<br>differences in university student’s scores on resilience scale (M + SD=<br>79.4201 + 26.55817). Males were found to be more resilient than<br>females. The findings of the present study have implications for students’<br>counseling, awareness and therapy. It was recommended that the training<br>of the students should also be done so that they deal with life events and<br>circumstances effectively while maintaining their psychological health.</p> Fauzia Malik, Saima Sajjad Copyright (c) 2023 PJE https://ojs.aiou.edu.pk/index.php/pje/article/view/884 Wed, 05 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 School Bullying and Empathy among Preadolescents: A Correlational Study https://ojs.aiou.edu.pk/index.php/pje/article/view/880 <p>The present study aimed to examine the relationship between<br>school bullying and empathy among preadolescents. Bullying was studied<br>across three dimensions of being a bully, victim, and fighting, whereas<br>empathy was examined as a unidimensional construct. Data were<br>collected from preadolescents between ages 10-12 years in District<br>Haripur. Descriptive statistics, frequencies/percentages, correlation, and<br>t-tests were performed. The findings showed that there is a negative<br>relationship between school bullying and empathy, and less empathic<br>preadolescents were more tended to bully and fight more than more<br>empathic. An equal number of participants reported fighting with others<br>and bullying them in one last month. However, a large majority reported<br>being the victims of bullying 7 or more times in the last 30 days (52,<br>36.4%). The level of empathy was in the moderate to high range among<br>178 students and low among 22 students. Boys scored higher on all<br>dimensions of bullying and were less empathic than girls. These findings<br>highlight the need for the screening, prevention, and intervention of school<br>bullying. Can help teachers, parents, school administrators, and counselors<br>to eradicate aggressive behavior.</p> Najia Zulfiqar, Asma Bibi, Somayia Hafeez Copyright (c) 2023 PJE https://ojs.aiou.edu.pk/index.php/pje/article/view/880 Tue, 04 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Online Classes Design and Delivery Based on Student Responses https://ojs.aiou.edu.pk/index.php/pje/article/view/877 <p>Covid -19 has made a series changes in all system of life especially<br>in education. As a result, education has changed dramatically with the<br>distinctive rise of e-learning. The present study was aim to examine the<br>preference and perception of MBBS student on newly introduced online<br>live video classes. Methods: For this purpose, an online questionnaire<br>survey consisting of closed and open-ended questions on nine different<br>categories such as accessing online video content, previous experience<br>with online learning, interaction with video lectures addressing the<br>content, duration, visualise, timings and screen size, perceived learning<br>experience, the online content learning assessment methods and the<br>experience with the online learning management system. Two hundred<br>and thirteen undergraduate medical students were participating in this<br>study. And it was conducted by the large medical institution in Andhra<br>Pradesh. Results and conclusions: From the results the e learning<br>methods was encouraged and its gaining popularity among the medical<br>students and faculty only 2.3 % were not satisfied with the online classes<br>on comparison to the traditional methods of learning. But the usefulness<br>and acceptability of e-learning among medical students as a part of their<br>curriculum is still not fathomed in medical education.</p> Surya Prakasa Rao, Vasanth Kumar Mohan, Sivakumar Vijayaraghavalu Copyright (c) 2023 PJE https://ojs.aiou.edu.pk/index.php/pje/article/view/877 Tue, 04 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Sociocultural Barriers to Empowerment of Female University Teachers: An Exploratory Factor Analysis https://ojs.aiou.edu.pk/index.php/pje/article/view/881 <p>The study aimed to build an indigenous scale for measuring<br>sociocultural barriers impeding female academics' empowerment in public<br>universities in Punjab. For this objective, the researcher explored the<br>sociocultural factors impacting female teachers' empowerment status<br>while focusing on the personal, family, workplace, and public domains. A<br>5-point Likert scale questionnaire was prepared. After pretesting, 21 items<br>were retained for conducting an Exploratory Factor Analysis. A sample<br>was selected through simple random sampling from public universities in<br>Punjab, and data were collected from 224 female academics through<br>Online Survey. Using SPSS (version 25), EFA grouped items into four<br>factors: (a) workplace harassment, (b) coercion on personal decisions, (c)<br>domestic violence, and (d) negative public attitude. The cumulative scores<br>on these four factors were added to the Sociocultural Barriers scale. All<br>factors contributed to measuring the construct of sociocultural barriers as<br>there was a positive correlation between factors and total scale scores.<br>However, a weaker inter-factorial correlation indicated the mutual<br>independence of each component. Scale reliability was α= 0.83, and the<br>range of Alpha Coefficients for factors varied between 0.90-0.85.</p> Fouzia Shahin, Ra’ana Malik Copyright (c) 2023 PJE https://ojs.aiou.edu.pk/index.php/pje/article/view/881 Tue, 04 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between Academic Perfectionism and Depression: Role of Self Concealment among Students https://ojs.aiou.edu.pk/index.php/pje/article/view/879 <p>The mediational role of self-concealment in relationship with<br>Academic Perfectionism and Depression is explored in the present study.<br>A sample of students (N=200) was taken from various departments of the</p> <p>University of Sargodha using a purposive sampling technique. Self-<br>concealment, academic perfectionism and depression were measured by</p> <p>using Urdu translated Self-Concealment Scale (SCS; Malik &amp; Ghayas,<br>2014) Academic Perfectionism Scale (APS; Malik &amp; Ghayas, 2014) and<br>Urdu translated depression subscale of DASS (Farooqi &amp; Habib, 2010)<br>respectively. Results indicated the academic perfectionism as a<br>significant positive predictor of self-concealment and depression.<br>Furthermore, data analysis revealed that self-concealment was a<br>significant positive predictor of depression among university students.<br>The results of this study also indicated that self-concealment also plays<br>the role of a mediator in the relationship between perfectionism and<br>depression. Non-significant gender differences were found in depression<br>among university students. Moreover, the current study yielded that the<br>level of self-concealment was higher among males than females, whereas<br>the level of academic perfectionism was higher among females as<br>compared to males.</p> Salma Malik, Saba Ghayas, Shaista Khalid Copyright (c) 2023 PJE https://ojs.aiou.edu.pk/index.php/pje/article/view/879 Tue, 04 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000