Evaluation of the Training Program for In-Service Teachers of Early Childhood Education Conducted by QAED in Punjab


  • Saima Malik UMT
  • Laila Khalid




Early Childhood Education (ECE), Head Teachers, Caregivers, Usefulness of ECE training, Advantages of ECE program


In-service teachers’ training programs are of serene significance for the capacity building of Early Childhood Education (ECE) teachers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an in-service teachers’ training program imparted by Quaid-e-Azam Academy for Educational Development (QAED), School Education Department, Govt. of Punjab, Pakistan.  Six ECE headteachers and six teachers from Punjab's rural and urban districts were selected through a convenient sampling technique. Semi-Structured protocol was developed and validated by five experts in the field. The respondents were questioned about how they implemented early childhood education (ECE) in their respective schools, including the infrastructure for ECE, the benefits of the ECE program in public schools, the value of providing in-service training to head teachers and ECE teachers, and recommendations for how to make the current program better. The data from the interviews was obtained using thematic analysis. The study's conclusions brought to light a number of issues, including a lack of funding, a continuous program for training teachers, ongoing caregiver hiring, a deficiency of rooms and staff, an ongoing monitoring system, and provision of an ECE kit. This study is captivating since it investigates the viewpoints of headteachers and teachers in Punjab's urban and ruler areas. The results have significant implications for how the Punjab government's school education department (QAED) and policymakers should evaluate the current state of early childhood education in the province. The results of this study will motivate researchers to carry out additional research of this type and inspire legislators to create laws that will assist ECE programs in strengthening or changing their present practices.


Download data is not yet available.


Allgood, C. E. (2020). Fiscal Management Practices and Quality Programming in Early Childhood: The Impact of Administrator Preparation (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University.

Arshad, M., & Zamir, S. (2018). Situational Analysis of Early Childhood Education in Pakistan: Challenges and Solutions. Journal of Early Childhood Care and Education, 2, 135-149.

Al-Mughairi, A. M. (2018). The evaluation of training and development of employees: the case of A national oil and gas industry (Doctoral dissertation). Brunel University: London.

Bhutta, E. (2020). Early Childhood Education, Mediation Analysis; A measurement of Factors Affecting Performance of Public Schools of Punjab Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Education, 36(3).

Chen, H. T. (2014). Practical program evaluation. Sage.

Crane, C. C. (2017). A Qualitative Study on the Preferred Working Environment of Southern California Secondary Teachers with Experience in Both a District Traditional School and a District Charter School (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University; USA.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Sage publications.

Dreer, B., Dietrich, J., & Kracke, B. (2017). From in-service teacher development to school improvement: Factors of learning transfer in teacher education. Teacher Development, 21(2), 208-224. doi:10.1080/13664530.2016.1224774

Fischer, C., Fishman, B., Dede, C., Eisenkraft, A., Frumin, K., Foster, B., ... & McCoy, A. (2018). Investigating relationships between school context, teacher 208 professional development, teaching practices, and student achievement in response to a nationwide science reform. Teaching and Teacher Education, 72, 107-121. doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2018.02.011

Frye, A. W., & Hemmer, P. A. (2012). Program evaluation models and related theories: AMEE guide no. 67. Medical Teacher, 34(5), 288-299.

Ghosh, P., Joshi, J. P., Satyawadi, R., Mukherjee, U. and Ranjan, R. (2011). Evaluating effectiveness of a training programme with trainee reaction. Industrial and Commercial Training, 43 (4), 247-255

Government of Pakistan (2017). National Education Policy 2017.Islamabad: Ministry of


Government of Punjab (2017). Punjab early childhood education policy 2017.


Holton, J. A. (2007). The coding process and its challenges. The Sage Handbook Of Grounded Theory, 3, 265-289.

Iqbal, M.Z., Maharvi, M.W., Malik, S.A. and Khan, M.M., (2011) . An empirical analysis of the relationship between characteristics and formative evaluation of training. International Business Research, 4(1), 237-286

Jaramillo-Baquerizo, C., Valcke, M., & Vanderlinde, R. (2019). Professional development initiatives for university teachers: Variables that influence the transfer of learning to the workplace. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 56(3), 352-362. doi:10.1080/14703297.2018.1479283

Kashar, C. (2018). Evaluation of a climate change training program for local government employees (Doctoral Dissertation). Nova Southeastern University.

Khan, N., Bhatti, M, Aslam., Sabir, K.H.; and Shaista, S.B. (2017). Early Childhood Education in Pakistan. Islamabad: Academy of Educational Planning and Management, Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training.

Khan, M. A. (2018). The status of early childhood education in Pakistan: Inside stories. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 19(3), 310-317.

Khattak, K. (2019, August 2). Pakistan’s early childhood education crisis; A case study of Punjab province. Retrieved from: https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/168356-Pakistans-early-childhood-education-crisis

Khalid, S., Irshad, M. Z., & Mahmood, B. (2012). Job satisfaction among academic staff: A comparative analysis between public and private sector universities of Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(1), 126.

Kraiger, K. (2002). Creating, implementing, and managing effective training and development: State-of-the-art lessons for practice. Jossey-Bass.

Maister, D. H. (2008). Why (most) training is useless. Training and Development, 62(5), 52-58.

Malik, S. (2022). Effectiveness of In-service Early Childhood Education Teachers’ Training Program for Public Schools of Punjab.,(Published Doctorial dissertation). University of Management & Technology, Lahore. Pakistan.

Malik, S., Sultana, R., & Malik, M. (2022). The Successes and Challenges of an Early Childhood Education Program in Punjab: A Qualitative Case Study. VFAST Transactions on Education and Social Sciences, 10(2), 97–102.

Malik, S., & Asghar, M. Z. (2020). In-Service Early Childhood Education Teachers’ Training Program Evaluation Through Kirkpatrick Model. Journal of Research, 14(2), 259-270.

Malik, S., & Asghar, M. Z. (2021). The Effectiveness of Early Childhood Education Program in Public Schools of Punjab. Journal of Business and Social Review in Emerging Economies, 7(2), 329-341.

Malik, S., Asghar, M. Z. & Khalid, L. (2021). Perspectives of Headteachers, Teachers, Parents and Caregivers about Early Childhood Education Program in Punjab: A Qualitative Study. SJESR, 4(2), 309-316.

Manyika, E. F. (2014). Evaluation of the effectiveness of training and development strategies in the mining sector: a case of Zimplats. (Doctoral dissertation). Midland State University.

Moore, S. (2014). Case study: The impact of preschool on kindergarten developmental reading assessments (Doctoral dissertation), Lindenwood University.

Miles, H., & Huberman, A. M. Saldana.(2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook. London: Sage Publications.

Nasir, M., & Iqbal, S. (2019). Academic Self Efficacy as a Predictor of Academic Achievement of Students in Pre-Service Teacher Training Programs. Bulletin of Education and Research, 41(1), 33-42.

Nickerson, A. B., Cook, E. E., Cruz, M. A., & Parks, T. W. (2019). Transfer of school crisis prevention and intervention training, knowledge, and skills: training, trainee, and work environment predictors. School Psychology Review, 48(3), 237- 250. doi:10.17105/SPR-2017-0140.V48-3

QAED, (2023). BUILDING THE WEALTH OF NATIONS; Early Childhood Care Advance Lifelong Learning. Retrieved from http://qaed.edu.pk/

Saks, A. M., and Burke, L. A. (2012). An investigation into the relationship between training evaluation and the transfer of training. International Journal of Training and Development, 16(2), 118-127.

Saldaña, J. (2021). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. SAGE Publications Limited.

Sarfraz, H. (2020). Early Childhood Education in Pakistan: Annual Status of Education Report. Ministry of Education. Islamabad.

Schreier, M. (2012). Qualitative content analysis in practice. London: Sage Publications.

Thornton, K. (2019). Early Childhood Education Trainers' Knowledge and Use of Andragogical Principles (Published Doctoral dissertation). Walden University: UK.

UNICEF. (2019). A World Ready to Learn: Prioritizing quality early childhood education.

UNICEF. (2018). Progress for every child in the SDG era. New York.

UNICEF. (2019). A World Ready to Learn: Prioritizing Quality Early Childhood Education. New York.

Vroom, V.H. (1964). Work and motivation. Wiley.

Warr, P., Allan, C., and Birdi, K. (1999). Predicting three levels of training outcome. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72(3), 351-375.

Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods (Vol. 5). sage.

Yin, R. K. (2012). Case study methods. In H. Cooper, P. M. Camic, D. L. Long, A. T. Panter, D. Rindskopf, & K. J. Sher (Eds.), APA handbook of research methods in psychology, Vol. 2. Research designs: Quantitative, qualitative, neuropsychological, and biological (pp. 141–155). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/13620-009




How to Cite

Saima Malik, & Laila Khalid. (2023). Evaluation of the Training Program for In-Service Teachers of Early Childhood Education Conducted by QAED in Punjab. JECCE, 7(2), 33–54. https://doi.org/10.30971/jecce.v7i2.1886