Modulating Inclusive Education in Early Childhood: The Role of Teachers’ Attitude and Self-Efficacy in Shaping Their Awareness and Readiness


  • Amjad Islam Amjad School Education Department, Punjab
  • Naghmana Batool Minhaj University Lahore
  • Umaira Tabassum Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China



Early childhood education, inclusive education, teachers’ awareness, teachers’ readiness, teachers’ self-efficacy


The role of inclusive education (IE) in early childhood education (ECE) become more pertinent because it fosters equity, acceptance, and diverse learning experiences. The present study aimed to explore the contribution of teachers’ awareness of IE (TAOIE) to teachers’ readiness for IE (TRFIE) and to investigate the moderating effect of teachers’ attitude toward IE (TATIE) and teachers’ self-efficacy toward IE (TSETIE). The research design of the present quantitative study was cross-sectional. Participants were the 300 ECE teachers working in public sector schools of Kasur and Lahore. The data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire comprising four sub-scales (TAOIE, TRFIE, TATIE, TSETIE). We used SPSS software to analyse data using simple linear regression and Process macro. The results revealed that TAOIE significantly contributes to TRFIE  (β = .640, t(298) = 14.385, p < .001) in ECE. TATIE showed a statistically insignificant effect (β = -.050, p =.179 > .05, 95 % Cl [-.124, .023] on the relationship of TAOIE and TRFIE. TSETIE had statistically significant moderating effect (β = -.152, p = .008 < .05, 95 % Cl [-.264, .039] for the relationship of TAOIE and TRFIE. ECE teachers were suggested to improve their TAOIE and TRFIE in ECE. Longitudinal and qualitative studies were recommended to improve study implications.


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How to Cite

Amjad Islam Amjad, Naghmana Batool, & Umaira Tabassum. (2023). Modulating Inclusive Education in Early Childhood: The Role of Teachers’ Attitude and Self-Efficacy in Shaping Their Awareness and Readiness . JECCE, 7(2), 55–76.