Exploring the Relationship Between News Media Exposure, Hegemonic Masculinity, and the Political Efficacy of Women: A Case of Pakistan


  • Huma Sadaf,Dr. Bushra Hameedur-Rahman, Dr. Lubna Zaheer


Political Participation, Political Efficacy, News Media, Opinion Leaders, Female Voters, Voting Behavior, Pakistani Politics


News media has become a fundamental source of influence to affect the politicalefficacy of people in modern democratic regimes. This study was designed to assess theinfluences of media outlets on the political opinions and practices of Pakistani female
voters, who are 48.5% of the total population. This research work aims to explore womenempowerment in Pakistani socio-political context with a focus on political efficacy anddecision making of female voters. Qualitative research design was employed in this studyand data was collected through in-depth interviews. Findings of this study revealed thatpolitical efficacy of women is influenced by the factor like media exposure, age, educationlevel, socio-economic status, and the political engagement and persuasiveness of malemembers of a family. The overall political system is another key determinant of politicalbehavior and a key predictor of women participation in the electoral process. It is assessedthat though years of state-based failures have eroded female voters’ perceptions ofPakistani political system, yet recent media exposure has enhanced the female involvement
in the overall political discourse in the society. Results of this study are significant forresearchers, political analysts, and academicians, interested in understanding femalepolitical participation processes in developing countries, particularly in the politicalmilieu of South Asian countries.