GMJ 2023-05-04T07:14:25+05:00 Editor Open Journal Systems <p>Global Media Journal</p> Politics on Facebook: Consumption Patterns and Perception Analysis of Students 2023-05-04T07:07:51+05:00 Maryam Tahira Gondal, Dr. Abdul Basit Mujahid <p>This study explores the extent of exposure and consumption of political contents on Facebook and its possible connection with attitudinal change in political perspectives of young university students at graduate and post graduate level in Pakistan. Variables of the study were Level of Education (Graduate and Post Graduate) and Gender (Male and Female). The major concepts around which the study revolves are Facebook timeline contents, Exposure to political posts/messages, Extent of Sharing the political contents and Changes in political perception, resulting into possible change in political beliefs and attitudes as perceived by the users. A random sample of 800n was drawn from two universities, from different regions of Pakistan. The findings of the study brought into the knowledge that young university students of different educational levels are heavy consumers of political contents on Facebook and they are of the view that this frequent exposure helps develop or change their political <br>awareness, beliefs and attitudes. Politicians and propagandists are utilizing new media technologies and social media not only for their general political communication but also for mobilization, motivation, propaganda and revolutionary movements. <br><br></p> 2023-05-04T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 GMJ An Assessment of Social Media Platforms as News Sources among Residents of South-east Nigeria 2023-05-02T11:30:53+05:00 Okechukwu Chukwuma <p>The study was aimed at ascertaining the perception of South-East residents regarding social media usage as news sources. The study was anchored on the perception theory. The survey research method was used for the investigation while the questionnaire was utilised as data collection instrument. Residents of South-East Nigeria constituted the population of the study from where a sample size of 381 was drawn using the Creative Research Systems online sample size calculator. The multi-stage sampling technique was used while tables and simple percentages were deployed to present and analyse the collected data. Based on the analysis of data, it was revealed among others that residents of South-East Nigeria do not perceive the social media platforms as credible sources of news. Accordingly, it was recommended that news gotten via social media should be <br>properly cross-checked for the purpose of authenticity.</p> 2023-05-02T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 GMJ Image of Religious Minorities in Bollywood Cinema: A Content and Cinematic Analysis 2023-05-02T11:21:31+05:00 Imtiaz Hussain, Prof. Dr. Shahzad Al <p>Bollywood films are fashionable for hundreds of thousands in India and Pakistan as well as within the West. The research explored the image of religious minority characters in Bollywood Movies with a quantitative and qualitative approach. Thirty movies were <br>chosen randomly which have leading religious minority characters Muslims, Christians, and Sikhs. Theoretically, this research interconnected with Politics of Representation by Stuart Hall, framing theory and Cinematography. The content analysis of the study evidently showed that the religious minorities was painted as unfavorable slant. Unfavorable slant by Muslims minorities which was 54.4% while, 52.5% Christian community and 46.1% Sikhs characters. Whereas favorable slant was highlighted that <br>Sikh community which was 42.7% similarly, Muslim minority was 33.5% and Christians minority 36.1% counted Moreover, Muslims minority were painted as dishonest 68.4%, thoughtless 67.4%, ugly 56.3%, unfair 54.5%, cowardly 47% and bad 44% whereas <br>Christian minority character were portrayed more intelligent 62.1%, mature 42.7% and attractive 41.8% while, Sikh minority character were painted as comedian 61.9%, unsuccessful 50%, religious 45% and brave 43.5%. Qualitatively, Cinema Depicted<br>Muslims image as psychologically militant dreadful individuals, and fear-based oppressors, deceivers, traitorous, and horrible. Hindi films have wrongfully portrayed the Muslims Minority either as non-modern feudal characters or as anti-national, terrorist, <br>villain, or anti-social characters. A Sikh is known for his strength and valor, comedians while Christian minority female represented as erotic object.</p> 2023-05-02T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 GMJ Development and Validation of Journalists’ Civic Engagement Scale 2023-05-02T11:13:24+05:00 Mehmood Ahmed, Dr. Zahid Yousa <p>Civic engagement is among some most demanded skills of the decade for all professionals and there are some measures for assessing civic engagement among individuals. However, a valid measure for assessing journalist’s civic engagement is still missing in the literature. Therefore, the effort has been made to develop journalist’s civic engagement scale. Owing to the purpose, 22 items was initially constructed based on seven point Likert scale. The items were reduced to 16 after CVR estimated based on judgment of fourteen experts. The retained items were administered on 182 working journalists. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was employed for construct validation of the scale and it results in one factor solution with 09 items. The item loads were above 0.60. Alpha reliability of the scale was estimated at 0.927. Model fit indicators such as SRMR, RMSEA, RMR, CFI, NFI, AGFI, and specifically CMIN/df were found satisfactory. The journalist’s civic engagement scale is ready and available for use.</p> 2023-05-02T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 GMJ Threats of Hybrid Warfare in the Age of Cyber Space and Digital Media: New Intimidations to Peace and Security in Pakistan 2023-05-04T07:14:25+05:00 Dr. Malik Adnan, Syed Yousaf Raza, Maham Shams <p>The case study of Pakistan was used to analyze the employment of media technology as a tool of hybrid warfare. There is a need to define new concepts of security and intimidation in order to meet the changing requirement for security. Cyberspace is <br />closely related to cyber security, which is used by state and non-state actors as an effective means of hybrid warfare. The current issues being faced by government officials and security departments of Pakistan in the area of hybrid warfare were the subject of the study. The hybrid war has become a topic of debate among digital media professionals, political experts, technology specialists, security authorities and policy makers. The study concludes by justifying the need to protect cyberspace from exploitation by many participants after highlighting key findings to substantiate cyber space security requirements. In the age of digital media and cyberspace, the changing aspects of hybrid warfare are unique to Pakistan. The inventive tools are needed to counter the evolving challenges in hybrid warfare and have to derive an approximate to safeguard the imminent intimidations.</p> 2023-05-04T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 GMJ Exploring the Relationship Between News Media Exposure, Hegemonic Masculinity, and the Political Efficacy of Women: A Case of Pakistan 2023-05-04T07:03:46+05:00 Huma Sadaf,Dr. Bushra Hameedur-Rahman, Dr. Lubna Zaheer <p>News media has become a fundamental source of influence to affect the politicalefficacy of people in modern democratic regimes. This study was designed to assess theinfluences of media outlets on the political opinions and practices of Pakistani female <br>voters, who are 48.5% of the total population. This research work aims to explore womenempowerment in Pakistani socio-political context with a focus on political efficacy anddecision making of female voters. Qualitative research design was employed in this studyand data was collected through in-depth interviews. Findings of this study revealed thatpolitical efficacy of women is influenced by the factor like media exposure, age, educationlevel, socio-economic status, and the political engagement and persuasiveness of malemembers of a family. The overall political system is another key determinant of politicalbehavior and a key predictor of women participation in the electoral process. It is assessedthat though years of state-based failures have eroded female voters’ perceptions ofPakistani political system, yet recent media exposure has enhanced the female involvement <br>in the overall political discourse in the society. Results of this study are significant forresearchers, political analysts, and academicians, interested in understanding femalepolitical participation processes in developing countries, particularly in the politicalmilieu of South Asian countries.</p> 2023-05-04T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 GMJ World Wide Web and Current Scenario of Internet among Pakistani Youth in Information Communication and its Impacts on Cultural Values 2023-05-02T11:24:24+05:00 Dr. Ghulam Safdar <p>Internet is combination of millions of computer based devices connected across the globe. Due to development of term internet, make space for online publishing named World Wide Web (WWW). Such facility of widespread medium enable people to link their <br />devices to internet and read, write, upload and download every kind of material supported by hardware and software. Due to interconnection of devices and WWW facility has make social communication more easily and fast. Researcher discussed some <br />elements of social communication that has become possible due to current scenario of internet and facility of WWW and its impact on cultural values. The study targeted students of university of Punjab Pakistan including male and female. A sample size of 585 respondents was taken from highest student statistical rate university using multi-level sample technique. The study focused how they think about internet as medium of cultural information like fashion trends, dressing styles, physical appearance, customs and use of language in their lives. The study concluded that internet has captured almost all aspects of lives of university students. Assumed hypothesis proved that students looked inspired towards new fashion trends, dressing style, physical appearance, social interaction and frequently user of foreign languages.</p> 2023-05-02T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 GMJ The Dark Side of social media: Examining the Impact of Fake News on Pakistani Society 2023-05-02T11:17:08+05:00 Dr. Wajid Zulqarnain, Naveed Ullah Hashmi, Amna Zulqarnain <p>This study examined the impact of social media fake news on Pakistani society through interviews with 100 experts. The study employed a thematic analysis approach to identify patterns and themes in the data. The findings revealed that social media fake news has led to the polarization of society, created mistrust among people, and negatively impacted the democratic processThe theoretical framework for the study was based on the social identity theory, agenda setting theory and cultivation theory, which suggest that people tend to associate with groups that share similar beliefs and values. The research questions were designed to explore the effects of fake news on social polarization and mistrust, as well as the role of social media in promoting fake news. The study hypothesized that social media fake news would have a negative impact on social trust and democratic processes. The findings suggest that social media platforms can be easily manipulated to spread false information and influence public opinion. Moreover, the study found that people tend to believe false information that aligns with their preexisting beliefs, which makes them more susceptible to fake news. The study concludes that social media fake news has a detrimental impact on society and that effective strategies are needed to combat it. The future recommendations include the development of media literacy programs to educate people about the dangers of fake news and the promotion of fact-checking and verification mechanisms on social media platforms.</p> 2023-05-02T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 GMJ