Bio-ecology and management of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): A review
Keywords:Bio-pesticides, Emerging pest, Fall armyworm, Pakistan, Spodoptera frugiperda, Trichogramma spp.
Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) locally known as fall armyworm is an emerging pest of
various crops (maize, cotton, and sugarcane). It has polyphagous feeding nature and is distributed throughout
the globe depending upon the climatic conditions. The cob of maize is its preferred food and is heavily damaged
during the high pest population. Feeding of its larvae can cause a characteristic skeletonizing or 'windowing' effect
with excessive fecal pellets in maize. Being holometabolous, complete metamorphic changes occur
during its developmental process i.e., egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Among all stages, only the larval stage is very
dangerous for crop production. At optimum climatic conditions, it completes its life cycle very quickly.
Temperature and humidity play an important role in influencing the life cycle duration of the pest. Several
control strategies have been adopted by small and large communities or researchers to control this notorious pest
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